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HomeWorldUSLive updates on Kentucky floods: death toll rises to 16

Live updates on Kentucky floods: death toll rises to 16

Floods can raise everything year round, in each region of in world. But distinguishing relations between any given flood but no climate change small feat, experts say, made difficult due to limited historical records, especially for the most extreme floods that occur rarely.

It may be tempting to attribute all floods and other extreme events to events to the forces of warming planet. But weather though not the climate weather climate can influence. For example, scientists believe that climate change is making days unusually hot. more common. They are not like that sure that climate change causes tornadoes more heavy.

Floods fall somewhere along confidence spectrum between heat waves (“yes, clearly”) and tornadoes (“we don’t know more”), said Daniel Swain, climate scientist in university of California, Los Angeles. “I would say yes, probably, but…”

flood, like other natural disasters, includes a number of of competing factors that can affect its frequency and intensity in opposite paths. Climate change exacerbating extreme precipitation in storms, is becoming an increasingly important part of mix.

which causes floods

Northeast entrance road in Yellowstone National Park after the historic flood. Credit…Samuel Wilson-Poole/Getty Images

Several main ingredients contribute flood development: precipitation, snowmelt, topography and how wet soil. depending on type of of in a flood, some factors may matter more than others.

For example, a river flood, also known as a river flood occurs when a river, stream or lake overflows its banks with water, often after heavy rains or rapidly melting snow. coastal flood occurs when land near a coast is inundated with water, often after a major storm that encounters with tides.

Flooding may also happen in areas with there are no bodies around of water. flash floods, in in particular, it can develop in any place where intense rains fall. over short period of time.

How floods are measured

Many metrics are used to measure floods, including level height (height of water in river relative to a certain point) and stream rate (how more water passes specific location over certain period of time).

To describe the heaviness of a flood, however, specialists often use in more simply term “100-year flood”, to describe flood who has 1 percent chance of startling in any given yearis considered an extreme and rare occurrence. term is just description of probability, however, is not a promise. BUT region can have two 100-year floods for several years.

Floods have become more frequent in past decades?

Residents appreciated the flood outside of them home in Far Rockaway, Queens in October 2021.Credit…Dave Sanders for New York Times

Not really. Climate change has undoubtedly increased heavy rainfall events, but unexpectedly there has been no corresponding increase in flood events.

With regard to river floods, climate change is likely to exacerbate their frequency and intensity. of extreme flood eventsbut reducing the number of moderate floods, researchers found in 2021 study published in Nature.

As the climate warms, higher rates of evaporation cause soil to dry out more fast. For moderate and more banal floods, initial conditions of Soil moisture is important as drier soils can absorb most of the amount of precipitation.

With big flood events that the initial soil moisture matters less “because there is so much water that the soil cannot absorb all of anyway,” said Manuela Brunner, a hydrologist at the University of Freiburg in Germany and lead author of study in 2021. Any additional water added past the point where the soil is completely saturated will be run off and promote flood developmentDr. Brunner said.

Looking at future

Scientists believe that some species of flooding will increase in “business as usual” scenario in which humans keep warming the planet with greenhouse gas emissions current rate.

First, coastal flooding will continue to increase as sea levels rise. rise. Melting glaciers and ice sheets add volume to the ocean, and the water itself expands when heated.

Second, flash floods will continue to increase as more extreme precipitation events. Higher temperatures increase evaporation, resulting in more moisture into the atmosphere, which is then released as rain or snowfall.

Researchers also expect flash floods to become more “bright” as the climate warms, meaning that timing of floods will become shorter, and the magnitude higher. Severe floods can more dangerous and destructive.

Flash floods can also More follow catastrophic forest fires in a deadly cascade of climate disasters. This is because forest fires destroy forests and other vegetation that in turn weakens the soil and makes it less permeable.

If heavy rains occur on land damaged by firewater “isn’t being absorbed by the earth’s surface as efficiently as it used to be,” said Andrew Hoell, a meteorologist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Physical Science Laboratory.

While it may be illogical to see two extremes, there are too many fire and too much water in the same region the sight will most likely become more commonespecially in American West.

emergency workers in Windsor, New South Wales, Australia on Monday, when flooding caused by heavy rain forced 50,000 people people from them homes.Credit…Bianca De Marchi/EPA, via Shutterstock

Flooding in different areas?

In a recent article published in Nature, explorers found what in in the future flash floods may be more common father north, in States of the Northern Rocky Mountains and Northern Plains.

It creates risk for flood mitigation efforts as local governments may not be aware of in future flash flood riskZhi Li said. lead author of research in 2022.

Template driven more fast-melting snow and snow that melts earlier in in yearDr. Lee said. Regions in higher latitudes can experience more “rain-on- snow floods like those that poured through Yellowstone in June.

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Tyler Hromadka
Tyler Hromadka
Tyler is working as the Author at World Weekly News. He has a love for writing and have been writing for a few years now as a free-lancer.

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